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Benign Prostate Hyperplasia
The prostate is a gland found only in the male body. It is about the size of a chestnut and is located under the bladder surrounding the urethra (the tube that brings urine from the bladder to outside the body).
The prostate gland produces seminal fluid, which when mixed with sperm makes semen, which the man ejaculates during sexual climax.
It is normal, as a man gets older, for his prostate to grow larger. As this is often harmless, it is referred to as benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), or benign enlargement of the prostate.
While the growth itself is harmless, it may eventually cause problems with urination. This is because the growing gland may start to press against the urethra, obstructing the flow of urine.
As BPH is associated with getting older, it is rare to see symptoms in men under the age of 40. It most often occurs in men over the age of 60.
There are a number of possible symptoms associated with BPH:
Not necessarily. The size of the prostate does not always determine how severe the symptoms will be. Somebody with a very large prostate may actually have fewer problems than somebody with a smaller one.
Yes. You might find that gradually it becomes harder to empty your bladder. This is known as chronic retention. As this condition develops, more and more urine is left in the bladder after urination.
For some men, urination may become impossible. This is known as acute retention. This is a very painful condition, and requires immediate medical treatment. If you are having any problems urinating, see your doctor immediately.
Other complications can include stones in the bladder, and cystitis (inflammation of the bladder, usually caused by an infection).
No. Medical treatment is only necessary if the symptoms are troublesome or if there are complications, such as acute retention. However if you have BPH, you should be monitored regularly by your doctor.
Mild symptoms do not require treatment.
For moderate symptoms, your doctor may recommend medications. These drugs will shrink the prostate gland but the long-term results are yet to be assessed.
For more severe symptoms, surgical removal of part of the prostate gland is usually required. This is most commonly undertaken through the urethra. The procedure is called transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Under general or spinal anaesthesia, a special type of cystoscope (a bladder viewing instrument) is inserted into the urethra. Once the prostate gland is seen, a heated wire loop is used to cut away the prostatic tissue that is obstructing the urethra. There are no scars after this surgery but a catheter (a tube to drain fluid) will be left in for several days to assist urine drainage.
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